Overview of Type 2 Diabetes
This is a type of diabetes found in adults. The pancreas produces insulin, but the body cannot use this as required due to insulin resistance. It occurs more in persons above the age of 40.
- Polyurea (frequent urination)
- Polydypsia (excessive thirst)
- Polyphagia (excessive eating)
- Weight increase or weight loss
- Increase of plasma blood glucose levels (when above 126 mg/dl on an empty stomach)
Symptoms other than these:
- Dry mouth
- Delayed recovery of wounds
- Dry and itchy skin
- Frequent infections
- Blurred vision
- Sexual problems
- Numbness and formication of the hands, feet or around the mouth
Whilst the reason for type 2 diabetes is not precisely known, its probability of occurrence is higher in some at risk groups. These are:
- Overweight individuals
- Those with unbalanced nutritional habits
- Individuals with a sedentary life sytle (not exercising)
- Those with a history of diabetes in the family
- Those with diabetes development during pregnancy or having delivered a baby with a weight of more than 4.5 kg
- Those experiencing the stress of a disease or injury
- Those with an over stressfullifestyle
What are the principles of type 2 diabetes treatment?
In the first stage treatment plan:
- Diet, meaning the regulation of nutritional habits,
- Change of lifestyle,/li>
- Implementation of an exercise programme.
If blood sugar levels cannot be sustained within normal limits by this treatment plan, sugar decreasing medicine, taken orally in the form of pills, is added to the treatment. But in some patients the application of insulin might be necessary, in order to maintain the blood sugar levels within normal limits. In these cases the treatment is supported with insulin injections at appropriate doses.
What is the Importance of High Sugar Levels?
Insulin is a hormone, produced and secreted into the blood by the panctreatic gland. Its main task is to carry the sugar (glucose) in the blood into the cells. The glucose in the cells is the energy source that provides the continuity of our daily life. Type 2 diabetes generally develops due to an insufficiency of insulin secretion and/or the decrease of cell sentivity to this hormone. The reason is that digestive system sourced resistance hormones and some signal mechanisms inside the cells either don’t allow the entrance of insulin into the cell or a resistance develops in the cell against insulin. This is called Insulin Resistance. Insulin is not able to fulfil its normal function due to this resistance. In the beginning, insulin secretion increases in type 2 diabetes, but the increased insulin secretion is not able to decrease the high sugar levels in the blood. When isulin cannot fulfil its function, sugar and other nutritional elements we get from food cannot enter the cells that need them. Thus, whilst the cells suffer under sugar deficiacy, the sugar in the blood increases to values above normal. The excessive increase of sugar in the blood generates a toxic effect and is destructive to all cells of the body.
Metabolic Surgery in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
The Insulin Resistance at type 2 diabetes patients has both pre-cell and in-cell components. In this situation digestive system sourced resistance hormones play a key role by wrapping the cells just like a shield, thus preventing the entrance of insulin into the cells. Digestive system sourced resistance hormones are eliminated sas a result of Metabolic Surgery applications. The shield around the cell is opened and insulin easily penetrates into the cell. Similarily, 2-3 months after the operation the fat, protein metabolism and liver lipoidosis and damage recover, and the cell internal signal mechanisms reverse. As a result of this, along with the normalisation of blood sugar, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients after Metabolic Surgery applications, also problems like hyper-tension, liver lipidosis, eye and kidney damage, and foot ulceration are eliminated with a single operation.
Who are Metabolic Surgery Candidates?
- Patients incapable of getting blood sugar under control though appropriate treatment
- Patients experiencing organ damage symptoms and with problems with eye, heart, kidney, liver, or feet
- Patients with serious weight problems.